Types Of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries are different. The different forms of brain injuries are based on the amount of force and the nature of force that impacts the head. Traumatic brain injuries could affect one area of the brain, certain functional areas, or even all areas of the brain.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury

1. Concussion
Concussions occur when an abrupt movement or momentum change or impact affects the brain. This may cause blood vessels of the brain to stretch, or damage the cranial nerves. Concussions can also be caused by gunshot wounds, direct blows to the head, a whiplash type of injury, or violent shaking of the head.

Both open and closed types of brain injuries can produce a concussion. The victim may remain conscious but feel “punch drunk” or “dazed” or may experience a brief loss of consciousness lasting less than 20 minutes. Some concussions can lead to substantial impairments and difficulties that could last up to a lifetime. Such impairments can be alleviated or eased through rehabilitation. But there are patients who are released from treatment without rehabilitation or guidance of any kind.

2. Contusion

This is a bruise or bleeding of the brain. It can be caused by a direct impact to the head of the individual. Surgery might be needed to remove larger contusions.

3. Diffuse Axonal Injury

This is typically caused by strong rotation or shaking of the head, just with the Shaken Baby Syndrome. It can also be caused by rotational forces on the head, such as ones experienced in a vehicle accident. The injuries are caused by the unmoving nature of the brain, which remains intact behind the movement of the skull. This causes the structures of the brain to tear.

If there’s an extensive tearing of nerve tissue in the brain, it might lead to the release of brain chemicals, disrupting the natural chemical and communication processes in the brain, leading to additional injury. This disturbance might lead to temporal or permanent brain damage, coma, and even death.

4. Coup Contrecoup

This injury describes contusions located at the site of impact, or at the complete opposite side of the brain. In most cases, this happens when the force impacting the brain is great enough to not only cause a contusion at the site of impact, but also cause the brain to slam onto the other side of the skull leading to additional contusion.

5. Penetration

Penetrating injuries typically occur from an impact of a knife, bullet, or sharp objects that forces skin, hair, bone, and other fragments to penetrate the brain. For objects travelling at a slower speed, the brain and the skull can ricochet within the skull, widening the area of damage.

Overall, firearms are the major cause of death from traumatic brain injuries. The devastating traumatic brain injuries resulting from bullet wounds cause an overall 91% deaths rate from firearms.

Four Different Types Of Speech And Language Impairments

Speech and language are important milestones in child development. Not only do they play a large role in everyday life making them essential to daily functioning, but they are a means of communicating with parents and expressing basic needs. Unfortunately, there are cases where a child will present with delayed speech or a speech and language impairment. This can be detrimental to their development, including psychological and emotional development. This is the main reason why speech and language impairments are covered under the IDEA Act. Together with a speech pathologist, you will create a plan to make sure that your child develops language.

1. Articulation Disorder

An articulation disorder is an impairment where the child has difficulty forming certain sounds correctly. The sounds may be omitted or improperly formed during speech resulting in the child using substitute sounds, such as “wabbit” instead of “rabbit”. Young children typically display articulation issues when learning to speak, but will often pass this phase by a certain age. However, if the difficulty continues to persist beyond a specific developmental age, it is possible that they are experiencing an articulation disorder.

2. Apraxia Of Speech

Apraxia of speech is a communication disorder that affects the programming system for speech production. Speech production in early childhood can be difficult, particularly regarding sequencing and word formation. An individual experiencing this impairment may know what they want to say, but a disruption in the programming system disallows the muscle to move correctly and the sound is produced. This leads to articulation errors, intonation difficulties, rhythm errors and speaking stress. Apraxia of speech can be identified in childhood or as a result of brain injury during adulthood or childhood.

3. Stuttering

One of the most well-known speech impairments is stuttering. Stuttering occurs when speech is interrupted by prolonged sounds, hesitations before words, and involuntary repetitions of words or sentences. This can be a developmental impairment, but it can also be acquired due to brain injury. No direct link has been discovered for stuttering; however, evidence shows that children with relatives who stutter are at higher risk of stuttering.

It should be noted that stuttering is not a difficulty in sound production, but a result of speech stress and nervousness to talk. The severity of the stutter will vary dependent on the speaker and their current level of anxiety.

4. Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome or FXS is a genetic disorder that is a common cause for many inherited intellectual disabilities in males, particularly autism. FXS will also affect females, but their symptoms tend to be milder than the male counterparts.

The speech and language impairment associated with FXS include repetition of words and phrases, difficulties with the pragmatics of speech, and overall cluttered speaking. The severity of the condition will differ according to the individual’s FXS.

Five Different Types Of Orthopedic Impairments

The human body can suffer and endure various types of physical injuries and impairments; however, many of these impairments can have a detrimental influence on the individual’s daily functioning. An orthopedic impairment is a type of impairment that can offer this negative effect because this can result in an incapacity for walking or sitting. Fortunately, orthopedic impairments can be effectively treated using traditional treatments such a physiotherapy or surgery. This article will provide information on five different types of orthopedic impairments and how they can be treated.

1. Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is a chronic condition affecting an individual’s bones and joints. It is triggered by specific bacteria and slowly destroys the bones by the disintegration of the matter. Due to the presence of bacteria and infection, pus is produced by the immune system which can result in a discharge with bad odor. This condition is most often introduced into the body through untreated abrasions and if it is not treated quickly, reconstructive orthopedic surgery may be required.

2. Spinal Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a highly infectious disease that can result in severe symptoms and death. When it is evident in the spine, it will cause a disintegration of the spinal column and the nerves. During this process, the impairment can be detrimental and will affect various areas of an individual’s life; therefore resulting in death if not treated correctly. Spinal tuberculosis can be identified in the thickening of the chest after a sharp bend is evident in the spinal region.

3. Cerebral Palsy

While cerebral palsy is technically a type of chronic motor condition affecting the body in entirety, it can lead to an inability to move, a lack of muscle tone, and a lack of muscle coordination. In the most severe cases, cerebral palsy will result in brain damage and the patient can experience a loss of mental capacity. This is particularly evident if the condition occurs when the baby is in the womb.

4. The Cleft Lip

A cleft lip is a common deformity and will occur as part of childhood development. The various parts of the face continue to form and, typically, the body will fuse the areas together. However, if the fusion between the medial and the maxillary nasal regions are not adequately fused, a cleft will form.

5. Angular Bone Deformity

An angular bone deformity is a simple bending of the bones above the knee and is a result of variations in normal growth patterns. The angular deformity will contribute to “knock knees” or “bow legs” and this can become worse as the child ages. This is considered as an orthopedic impairment because if this is not treated it can lead to unavoidable joint damage.

What Exactly Is A Learning Disability?

A learning disability is a problem that happens within the brain, a neurological disorder that prevents people from learning because their brain is hardwired in a different way. People that have lingering disabilities can actually be smarter than the average person, but have a problem with certain ways of learning. Let’s go over some of the most common learning disabilities, and why they are able to affect people.

How Does A Learning Disability Start?

A learning disability is simply the result of the brain not processing what the five senses are able to pick up. For example, if you have dyslexia, this is a condition where you are not able to read words properly, a condition that causes your brain to reverse certain letters. Another one is ADHD. This is a attention deficit disorder combined with hyperactivity which not only affects children, but also millions of adults. They become overloaded with what they are trying to process, and as a result of this, can become erratic in their behavior (which sometimes leads to personal injury) and also have trouble sitting long enough to focus on what is being taught. Others include dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and many other conditions that inhibit the person from being able to process simple information.

Is There A Cure For These Disorders?

According to many people, these processing deficits found within these individuals are simply unable to take sensory data and process at the normal way. Each one can affect individual people differently, with some people having a substantial disorder which will prevent them from reading, or may make it virtually impossible for them to have social interactions. In order to combat this, prescription drugs are often given to these individuals that have this overload of information which will include stimulants, antihypertensive drugs, and cognition enhancing supplements such as nootropics.

Now that you have a better idea of what a learning disability is, and how it can be treated, you may want to speak with your doctor about how to deal with these problems. You can find a full list of symptoms to look for online, and corresponding medical treatments that are available, that can help you with what could be a very debilitating problem. At the very least, you will understand if you have one, and if so, what options you have available. This may allow you to become more cognizant, and also more social, once you have figured out these problems.

Debunking Myths About Intellectual Disabilities

There are a lot of myths and misinformation about mental illness and disabilities. Many people think it’s “all in your head”, which is true in much the same way as breaking a bone is “all in your arm”. There are certain mental disabilities that people are fine with, such as depression and anxiety, right up until those disabilities cause a real world problem. Then people will complain about how inconvenient the whole situation is for them.

This is why many children get diagnosed with an intellectual disability. For some time, this was referred to as “mental retardation”, but as scientific understanding of mental disabilities has grown the term “retarded” has become less useful. It also became a slur, used to insult people, which caused many of those with disabilities to proclaim they didn’t want the word used any longer.

But what’s the problem with intellectual disabilities? What are they? The short answer is that an intellectual disability is exactly that. Some aspect of the brain was not fully formed for one reason or another, and a person is unable to process information at the same speed as the average person their age. This can cause many different issues throughout the person’s life.

Another bit of misinformation is that a person is either fully functional or has a mental disability, and there’s no in-between. That’s not true at all. The truth is that there is a wide range of problems that can be covered under the umbrella term of “intellectual disability”. For example, ADHD is often paired with the term. While the two aren’t the same thing by a strict reading of the DSM-V they tend to go hand in hand. Since ADHD affects a person’s ability to focus and process information, it’s understandable that they would also have a difficult time functioning at the same level as those around them.

This also means that not every person needs to be treated the same way. There are some therapies and medications that can help with some disabilities, where as others can only be managed. There are some people who will never learn how to be more functional than a child, where as others can function mostly at the level of those around them but will need more time to study and learn to do so.

In short, intellectual disabilities are difficult to diagnose from a short interaction. So don’t presume that you can tell if someone is or is not disabled.

The Three Types Of Hearing Impairment

There are three types of hearing loss that can indicate what the underlying causes for the loss of hearing. The reasons for the loss of hearing can be sensorial, conductive or mixed. Please note, that hearing loss is different than deafness, which is why it’s considered a different disability under the IDEA act.

Sensorial Hearing Loss

The most common type of hearing is known as sensorial hearing loss. This is a total loss of hearing and results from irreparable damage done to the fine hair like cells of the inner ear that transfer sound signals from the ear to the brain, These delicate sounding implements allow the variance of distance and intensity to be defined clearly.

There is no treatment for sensorial hearing loss. This is because the capacity to repair the tiny and highly delicate cells in question exceeds the capacity of modern medical science or surgical precision. Nevertheless, the condition can be aided in some level with the help of a hearing aid or certain cochlear implants. It will be necessary for those with any level of sensorial hearing loss to take advantages of vibrating alarm clocks, captioned phones and other assistive hearing devices but the results vary.

Conductive hearing loss

A slightly less common form of hearing loss is called conductive hearing loss. This is the result of many types of obstructions that can damage the inner or outer ear and also prevent the smooth conveyance of sound to the proper sensory nerves. This type of hearing loss can be severe and permanent or it can be mild and temporary depending on the underlying causes.

There are a variety of different medical procedures that can be applied to improving the hearing of those with conductive hearing loss. Many causes of this type of hearing loss include excessive wax in the auditory canal, foreign objects, abnormal growths and more. These can be treated with a number of techniques for removing wax and foreign objects, surgically removing growths or treating infections with antibiotics. In these cases, the afflicted will regain their hearing in a short amount of time.

Stenosis, exostoses and ossicular chain discontinuity can also cause conductive hearing loss. Because these conditions can be more complex to treat medically and current techniques are insufficient in treating all cases successfully, these types of hearing losses are considered permanent. Again these can be treated with implantable hearing devices. Assisted listening devices will also be important in these cases.

Mixed hearing loss

This is the condition that contains elements of both sensorial and conductive hearing loss. Treatment options can depend on the extent of the damage and whether the hearing loss is more conductive than sensorial.

What Does Mean If Your Child Has Emotional Disturbance?

If you have recently taken your child in to speak with a doctor about problems they are having, such as an inability to learn, they may diagnose them with having an emotional disturbance. This is a conclusion that they may come to as a result of testing their five sensory perceptions, and will conclude that it is something that is in the brain, specifically affecting their life because of an emotional disturbance. There are ways to determine if your child has gone through this type of ordeal, and ways of treating this condition. Let’s define what an emotional disturbance is, and then go over the different treatment options that are available today.

What Is The Definition Of An Emotional Disturbance?

This is often detected in school, specifically after a teacher has determined that the child is not able to learn properly. It is not that they are incapable, but they seem to have either a sensory, intellectual, or health disorder that is causing the problem. The ability to maintain proper interpersonal relations with not only their friends but with teachers will begin to diminish. Their behavior will also be an indication of this problem. They may become moody, being diagnosed as bipolar or depressed. Doctors will be able to come to this conclusion once they have assessed that there is nothing wrong with their ability to process information.

How Is An Emotional Disorder Treated?

In the same way that behavioral disorders are treated with medications, so also can emotional disorders. Physicians will often recommend talk therapy before recommending any type of pharmaceutical to help them. For example, they may ask you to take your child to a psychologist in order to discuss the problems they may be having. This type of therapy can help them identify the negative feelings that they are harboring inside, and begin to work through the negative thought patterns which are impeding their ability to socialize and learn. If it is determined that they do have a bipolar disorder as a result of this emotional disorder, they may be given medication such as an antidepressant such as Paxil or Zoloft. They may also recommend medication such as Adderall. These have been shown to help kids deal with these problems, but it is a measure of last resort as it can also have side effects that can affect their behavior even more.

Emotional disorders or disturbances are typically the result of a trauma that has happened in the past. It might be repressed, and therefore they may not be able to recall what has happened. Through psychotherapy, these repressed feelings may be revealed, allowing the child to release that emotion inside that is causing the problem. If this can be done, sometimes the symptoms of this disorder will diminish, allowing them to become more progressive at school and socialize on a much more normal level. This is a condition that can affect anyone, and if you believe that your child is suffering from an emotional disturbance, these are the ways that it can be diagnosed and potentially treated.

What Is The Definition Of Deafness?

Deafness or hearing loss is a condition in which a person is not able to either hear at all, or they will have lost part of their ability to hear properly. Symptoms of this condition include total hearing loss, or people will not be able to hear at certain frequencies. People, to determine how their ears are functioning, participate in tests that focus on things like the intensity of noise, pitch, or even both. This can lead to challenges for education that people must face because they are not able to hear what people are saying, which is why this disability is covered under the IDEA act.

The Symptoms Of Deafness

The most obvious symptom associated with being deaf is not being able to hear anything around you. If you are partially deaf, people may have to speak more loudly so that you can hear them, or you may need to invest in a hearing aid that can help. Some people are only deaf in one ear, whereas others may be deaf in both. There are many causes of deafness which can be complications at birth, chickenpox, mumps, sickle cell disease, and even conditions like syphilis or diabetes can lead to losing your hearing.

Treatments For Deafness

The treatment for deafness that you receive will depend upon the severity of the condition itself. There could be damage to the ear canal, eardrum, or even the auditory nerve. When you go to see a professional, when you believe that you are losing your hearing, they will run a series of tests to determine what is causing the problem. They may recommend hearing aids, surgery, and if it is in the early stages, they may actually ask you to change your lifestyle or diet.

Deafness is a condition that people can learn to live with. People that are completely deaf learn sign language or learn to read lips, in order to communicate with others. For those that have substantial hearing loss, but that can still hear, will opt for hearing aids that can boost the sounds of the world around them. Many modern treatments, especially in the area of surgery, have shown great promise in repairing damage to the ear allowing people to hear once again. If you believe that you are losing your hearing, you should set an appointment with an otolaryngologist that will be able to help you potentially treat this condition.

What Is The Cause Of Blindness?

Blindness is a condition that affects many people. It can be caused by experiencing some type of disease, injury, or it could be congenital in nature. Blindness is sometimes permanent, whereas there are those that have limited vision. Their range of vision is going to be limited based upon the inability to see.

What Are The Causes?

The cause of this disorder can be anything from diabetes to glaucoma. Accidents or injuries that affect the eyes can also cause this to happen. Chemical burns, sports injuries, and any type of blunt impact to the head can lead to this disorder manifesting. Other forms of blindness that are not initially complete include macular degeneration and the development of cataracts in the eyes. People have suddenly become blind as a result of blocked blood vessels. They may have had complications at birth such as being born prematurely. Lazy I is another form of blindness, and if you have ever had eye surgery, if something goes wrong, it could lead to the partial or complete loss of vision.

How Is Blindness Treated?

A person that has lost their vision will likely never regained it again. They will have to learn how to adapt to not being able to see. You may have seen many people walking around with a guide dog or a cane. Some of them will also have an individual that will accompany them so they can go about their day. If it is partial blindness, they can learn to live with this in a similar manner, and they will adapt their routines so that functioning will be at optimal levels. They will follow certain patterns during the day, and will remember exactly where they have placed certain items in their home, allowing them to compensate for not being able to see normally.

Are There Any Treatments For Blindness?

There are many treatments that people can obtain for blindness. For example, if there blindness is the results of nutritional problems, changing their diet can help resolve the problem. The development of cataracts is common, a condition where the internal lens of the eyeball begins to cloud over. Surgery can rectify the situation by extracting what is causing this cloudiness, allowing people to see normally once again. Macular degeneration does not have a treatment option, but there are many things that can be done to prevent it, or delay it, from happening.

For those that are blind, they must use certain strategies throughout the day to function. They will become much more adept with the other senses that they have. This is their way of compensating for an inability to see, and has allowed many people to live a primarily normal life. If you are not blind, there are ways of preventing this by having a proper diet, and avoiding any activities that could lead to impact of the cranium. If it does occur, there are many treatments available for certain conditions that have caused blindness, and for those that are completely blind, people can be educated on how to adapt to this debilitating situation.

Defining Autism As A Disability

There is a disability that many people have called autism, whether they live in Los Angeles or in New York or anywhere in between. It is referred to as a spectrum disorder, one that is brain-based. It can create many problems including difficulties with social communication, and people will often have repetitive behaviors. They will have interest and activities that they will do, but they will do them in a unique manner that is the result of their condition. It is a developmental disability, one that leads to behavioral and communication challenges, which is why┬áit’s covered under the IDEA act. However, some of the people that have this condition have amazing problem-solving capabilities, sometimes related to mathematics.

Early Signs Of Autism

Autism is something that can be detected as early as the first year of a child’s life. It is most noticeable if they begin to fixate on objects indefinitely, or if they are not responsive to the request of other people. If they are older, they are not going to make eye contact, and repetitive movements are quite common. When they play with toys, it will be in a very different way from all of the other girls and boys. As they get older, this condition will worsen, something that will be very obvious by the time they reach the age where they can attend kindergarten. Once they reach adulthood, they are going to have severe anxiety in social situations, difficulty understanding empathy, and making conversation with other people will be extremely hard to do.

Are There Any Treatments For Autism?

There is no actual treatment for autism. It is a condition that they will have to learn to live with. It is actually thought that children develop this as a result of getting MMR vaccinations. Although the studies are not conclusive, showing no scientific evidence that this is the reason that they have developed autism, there are many people that believe that this is true. It is a condition that is worsening, with one in 45 children being diagnosed with ASD.

The only way to treat this condition is to deal with the symptoms of autism. They will have to receive help from a therapist that understands how to help them with their repetitive nature. They will be able to develop motor skills, and through the process of imitation, can actually learn to interact and operate as other children do. All of this will be covered in their Individualized Education Plan. People that are older may not have the ability to reduce the effects of this disorder. Until it is determined what has actually caused this within the millions of people that have it, this will be the only treatment option available.