What Is Cerebral Palsy?

Cerebral palsy is best defined as a disorder of movement, posture, or muscle tone. It is caused by the damage that can occur in an immature, developing brain. This condition most often occurs before birth. Symptoms and signs of cerebral palsy will normally occur during a child’s infancy or preschool years. The signs of cerebral palsy will be an impaired movement that is associated with abnormal reflexes. It will also often show up as abnormal posture, rigidity or floppiness of the trunk and limbs, unsteady walking, involuntary movements, or a combination of any of these conditions.

People who suffer from cerebral palsy may also experience eye muscle imbalance or have problems swallowing. The eye muscle imbalance will cause the eyes not to focus on the same object. There may also be a reduced range of motion in various parts of their body which is primarily due to muscle stiffness. Each person who suffers from cerebral palsy will have various degrees of functional abilities. Some who suffer from this debilitating disease may be able to walk while others cannot. Also, there will be different degrees of intellectual capacity. Deafness, blindness, or epilepsy can also be present.

The symptoms and signs can vary greatly with anyone who has cerebral palsy. Some of the coordination and movement problems that are associated with this disease may include exaggerated reflexes, stiff muscles, variations of muscle tone, or lack of muscle coordination. Other symptoms can include involuntary movements, excessive drooling, seizures, problems with swallowing, difficulty with eating or sucking, delays or difficulties with speaking or speech development, and favoring one side of the body over the other side.

The disability that is associated with cerebral palsy may be restricted to only one side of the body or primarily to a specific limb. It can also affect the entire body. The brain disorder that causes cerebral palsy will not change over time which means that the symptoms will normally not get worse with age. However, muscle rigidity and shortening could worsen if not treated aggressively.

Some brain abnormalities can also contribute to various neurological problems. Cerebral palsy victims may also have seizures, oral diseases, intellectual disabilities, difficulty with hearing and vision, urinary incontinence, abnormal pain or touch perceptions, or psychiatric mental health conditions. If you perceive that your child has any of the above symptoms then it is important to get a prompt diagnosis from your family doctor. Not doing so could delay or hinder your child’s future development.

Osteogenesis Imperfecta Or Brittle Bone Disease

What is osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease)? Osteogenesis imperfecta, often referred to as OI, is an inborn disease in childhood that causes fractures. It also can cause fractures in adults. This genetic disorder normally results from an abnormality of the genes. People who have this disorder do not have the ability to produce a protein called collagen. Collagen is the primary protein in a bone and it is central for the bone’s strength.

Often, a child who is born with osteogenesis imperfecta will have a fracture that has taken place within the womb. Other children, with this debilitating disease, may have their first fracture either soon after birth or within a few years. There are children with osteogenesis imperfecta that may be misdiagnosed because of only having a few minor fractures in childhood.

In childhood, the fractures are often difficult to predict. A fracture may occur spontaneously and with very little trauma. Therefore, the signs of OI may not be evident for weeks or months until an x-ray is done for some other reason. The bones do not necessarily always behave in a brittle way. There are times when a fracture from an injury should normally occur but does not.

Both boys and girls will see their rate of fractures diminish as they grow older. Once again, the reason for this is unknown. There may be other problems in various parts of the body with this disease besides fractures. The results of these other problems are also because of the absence of collagen. Some of the other problems include joints that may be lax, impaired growth, blue or gray whites of the eyes, discolored and fragile teeth, intolerance of heat, and excessive sweating
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People who have osteogenesis imperfecta will have had it since the time of conception. The disorder can pass from one generation to another. However, it can also arise in someone without a family history of the disorder. A Nashville clinical geneticist is a specialist in gene problems and he will be able to help you identify both the pattern of inheritance and the risk of passing this condition on to your children.

The primary treatment for anyone who is diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta is to ensure that all fractures heal in a good position. A patient should be mobilized as soon as possible after a fracture so that they minimize their loss of bone due to the mobilization.

Learn More About Dyslexia

When you look at some people you may think they are perfectly normal and not a thing is wrong with them until you talk to them. It is at this point that you realize they have some type of issue that you are not sure what is wrong. This often is because it is a learning disability that people have managed to hide for a long time period. One of those disabilities that people have a tendency to suffer from is dyslexia. Since this is one of those hidden disabilities people usually do not know a lot about it or even worse think their is nothing wrong with people who suffer from it. So what is it and what does dyslexia do?

The short answer is dyslexia is a disability that prevents people from suffering from it the chance to read properly. That is typically because they are going to flip the position of letters or even worse see the letters going backwards. This makes it very difficult for people to read and even use math at times because they have a tendency to get the answers wrong because of the way the information is being processed in their mind. Now this does not mean they cannot function, because the next paragraph will cover some of the famous dyslexic people.

Now we know that dyslexia already is a disability that makes it difficult to read. However, their is one very famous scientist that a lot of people never really thought about as being dyslexic or having a reading disability. That is none other than the founding father of modern day physics in Albert Einstein and everyone knows what he was able to do. Another famous person who suffered from dyslexia and became famous as a painter is Leonardo da Vinci. So it easy to see that this disease is one that people suffer from, but they have a tendency to blossom in other areas.

Having met some people that have dyslexia you may think they will never amount to anything. However, after learning more about what the disease is and how it impacts the daily life of people helps out tremendously in learning about people who suffer from it. Learning about the famous people who have overcome the dyslexic life, though, make it even easier for you to find the right information to know these people who suffer may be lacking in one area, reading, but they excel in other areas to become some of the worlds brightest minds.

What Is Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition that occurs when a baby is born with a partial or full extra chromosome 21. For every 700 babies born, approximately one baby will be born with Down syndrome. In the US, there are around 6000 children born with Down syndrome per year, according to 361 lawyers.

There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21 or nondisjunction, mosaicism, and translocation. Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome, accounting for around 95 percent of the cases. With this type of the syndrome, the 21st chromosome pair does not separate in either the sperm or egg. This results in the embryo having an extra chromosome 21. Mosaicism occurs when a mixture of two types of cells happen. This creates an extra chromosome 21. Around one percent of all cases are mosaicism. With translocation, the extra chromosome 21 will attach itself to another chromosome. This type of Down syndrome occurs in about four percent of cases.

A person with Down syndrome may or may not have many different features of the syndrome. These physical features can include a short stature, short limbs, low muscle tone, slanted eyes, small ears, and crooked or irregular teeth. The health problems associated with Down syndrome can include intellectual disability, eye conditions, celiac diseases, heart defects, dental or hearing problems, behavior problems, and hypothyroidism.

Diagnosing Down syndrome can be done before birth or after. Before birth, screening tests are completed to determine the chances of the child being born with the condition. Diagnostic tests have evolved over time allowing for more ways to test for Down syndrome before birth. Blood tests and ultrasounds are used to help to determine if the baby has the markers of the condition. Diagnostic procedures include amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. When a baby is born, Down syndrome is determined by checking for the physical traits and doing a karyotype test. A karyotype test is a chromosomal analysis that is done by examining the cells in a blood sample from the baby.

People with Down syndrome can still do most things that other people are able to do. Although there are cognitive delays, most of these delays are mild to moderate. More and more individuals are leading independent lives with limited assistance. With proper therapy and teaching, a person with Down syndrome can do almost all of the things that a person without the condition can do, such as play sports, have a job, do well in school, and care for themselves.

What Is An Individualized Education Plan (IEP)?

In its simplest terms, the IEP is a document that is used by a public school to determine the needs of a child who has special requirements for any reason related to a physical or learning based disability.

In most circumstances, the plan is developed to help a child with disabilities to ensure that they still receive a high-quality education despite the disabilities they may have.

What is its main purpose?

The main purpose of the document is to allow an opportunity for parents, teachers, students, and any related authorities to determine the best course of action to help the child get the education they need without being unduly handicapped by any disabilities they may have.

The individualized plan makes it easy to ensure everybody’s on the same page regarding learning issues, and it also presents the ideal place for specific educational goals to be set.

What information is usually included?

The information required in the plan can vary over time, and it will be reviewed at regular intervals to ensure that all of the child’s needs are being met.

In general, the plan will include information regarding the overall curriculum that will be followed, along with any suitable extracurricular activities and nonacademic activities that are relevant to the child’s education.

It will also include a statement of annual goals, a description of how the child is progressing towards these annual goals, and further information regarding the child’s current level of academic achievement as well as their overall functional performance in the educational system.

At the end of the day, it’s safe to say that the individualized education plan is an essential document for ensuring that a child with disabilities is receiving the special care and attention they need to make sure they receive a quality education without being held back due to physical or learning disabilities.

By collaborating with parents and teachers, it’s possible to develop an effective plan that’ll help the child reach their full potential, and the individualized education plan is a document that is at the heart of making sure this process happens.

Types Of Visual Impairments

The initials WHO represent the World Health Organization. The World Health Organization have a list of classifications of handicaps, disabilities, and impairments that are used to classify the various types of visual impairments. An impairment is typically described as any abnormality or loss in a psychological or physiological function or a loss in an anatomical structure.

A disability, on the other hand, is a restriction that results from an impairment. A disability prevents someone from performing a particular activity in a way that is considered normal. This will often include a person’s daily activities, which is why Visual Impairments are under the IDEA Act thanks to law firms lobbying for its conclusion.

Obviously, a disability or handicap can put a person at a disadvantage in various daily situations. A visual impairment is simply an impairment that limits the functions or actions of the visual system. The National Eye Institute provides information on both a low vision and acute vision impairment. A low vision impairment cannot be corrected by contact lenses, standard glasses, surgery, or medication and it will restrict a person’s ability to perform daily living activities.

A visual acuity means that the visual field can only be corrected by 20 degrees or less. Blindness is also defined as a type of visual acuity. There are many causes for visual impairment including glaucoma, cataracts, nearsightedness, and macular degeneration. Glaucoma is a visual condition that is caused by a rise of normal fluid pressure levels within the eye.

A person who has glaucoma is someone who has a vision that is like a tunnel. The center of the vision remains intact while the peripheries progressively start to decrease. The center of the tunnel like vision will reduce on a progressive level and ultimately lead to total vision loss if not corrected.

With age-related macular degeneration, there is a cottony or woolly opacity in the central area of a person’s vision. With this type of vision disability, the peripheries may continue to see normally. As the central vision becomes obscured it will hinder daily activities such as sewing, driving, and reading. This type of visual impairment is painless.

Other types of visual impairment include cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, nearsightedness, and retinitis pigmentosa. If you have any of the above conditions you should seek the advice of an optometrist or an ophthalmologist. We live in a visual world and it is important to take care of our eyes. A regular visit to an eye doctor can prevent serious eye damage from occurring.

Types Of Traumatic Brain Injuries

Traumatic brain injuries are different. The different forms of brain injuries are based on the amount of force and the nature of force that impacts the head. Traumatic brain injuries could affect one area of the brain, certain functional areas, or even all areas of the brain.

Types of Traumatic Brain Injury

1. Concussion
Concussions occur when an abrupt movement or momentum change or impact affects the brain. This may cause blood vessels of the brain to stretch, or damage the cranial nerves. Concussions can also be caused by gunshot wounds, direct blows to the head, a whiplash type of injury, or violent shaking of the head.

Both open and closed types of brain injuries can produce a concussion. The victim may remain conscious but feel “punch drunk” or “dazed” or may experience a brief loss of consciousness lasting less than 20 minutes. Some concussions can lead to substantial impairments and difficulties that could last up to a lifetime. Such impairments can be alleviated or eased through rehabilitation. But there are patients who are released from treatment without rehabilitation or guidance of any kind.

2. Contusion

This is a bruise or bleeding of the brain. It can be caused by a direct impact to the head of the individual. Surgery might be needed to remove larger contusions.

3. Diffuse Axonal Injury

This is typically caused by strong rotation or shaking of the head, just with the Shaken Baby Syndrome. It can also be caused by rotational forces on the head, such as ones experienced in a vehicle accident. The injuries are caused by the unmoving nature of the brain, which remains intact behind the movement of the skull. This causes the structures of the brain to tear.

If there’s an extensive tearing of nerve tissue in the brain, it might lead to the release of brain chemicals, disrupting the natural chemical and communication processes in the brain, leading to additional injury. This disturbance might lead to temporal or permanent brain damage, coma, and even death.

4. Coup Contrecoup

This injury describes contusions located at the site of impact, or at the complete opposite side of the brain. In most cases, this happens when the force impacting the brain is great enough to not only cause a contusion at the site of impact, but also cause the brain to slam onto the other side of the skull leading to additional contusion.

5. Penetration

Penetrating injuries typically occur from an impact of a knife, bullet, or sharp objects that forces skin, hair, bone, and other fragments to penetrate the brain. For objects travelling at a slower speed, the brain and the skull can ricochet within the skull, widening the area of damage.

Overall, firearms are the major cause of death from traumatic brain injuries. The devastating traumatic brain injuries resulting from bullet wounds cause an overall 91% deaths rate from firearms.

Four Different Types Of Speech And Language Impairments

Speech and language are important milestones in child development. Not only do they play a large role in everyday life making them essential to daily functioning, but they are a means of communicating with parents and expressing basic needs. Unfortunately, there are cases where a child will present with delayed speech or a speech and language impairment. This can be detrimental to their development, including psychological and emotional development. This is the main reason why speech and language impairments are covered under the IDEA Act. Together with a speech pathologist, you will create a plan to make sure that your child develops language.

1. Articulation Disorder

An articulation disorder is an impairment where the child has difficulty forming certain sounds correctly. The sounds may be omitted or improperly formed during speech resulting in the child using substitute sounds, such as “wabbit” instead of “rabbit”. Young children typically display articulation issues when learning to speak, but will often pass this phase by a certain age. However, if the difficulty continues to persist beyond a specific developmental age, it is possible that they are experiencing an articulation disorder.

2. Apraxia Of Speech

Apraxia of speech is a communication disorder that affects the programming system for speech production. Speech production in early childhood can be difficult, particularly regarding sequencing and word formation. An individual experiencing this impairment may know what they want to say, but a disruption in the programming system disallows the muscle to move correctly and the sound is produced. This leads to articulation errors, intonation difficulties, rhythm errors and speaking stress. Apraxia of speech can be identified in childhood or as a result of brain injury during adulthood or childhood.

3. Stuttering

One of the most well-known speech impairments is stuttering. Stuttering occurs when speech is interrupted by prolonged sounds, hesitations before words, and involuntary repetitions of words or sentences. This can be a developmental impairment, but it can also be acquired due to brain injury. No direct link has been discovered for stuttering; however, evidence shows that children with relatives who stutter are at higher risk of stuttering.

It should be noted that stuttering is not a difficulty in sound production, but a result of speech stress and nervousness to talk. The severity of the stutter will vary dependent on the speaker and their current level of anxiety.

4. Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome or FXS is a genetic disorder that is a common cause for many inherited intellectual disabilities in males, particularly autism. FXS will also affect females, but their symptoms tend to be milder than the male counterparts.

The speech and language impairment associated with FXS include repetition of words and phrases, difficulties with the pragmatics of speech, and overall cluttered speaking. The severity of the condition will differ according to the individual’s FXS.

Five Different Types Of Orthopedic Impairments

The human body can suffer and endure various types of physical injuries and impairments; however, many of these impairments can have a detrimental influence on the individual’s daily functioning. An orthopedic impairment is a type of impairment that can offer this negative effect because this can result in an incapacity for walking or sitting. Fortunately, orthopedic impairments can be effectively treated using traditional treatments such a physiotherapy or surgery. This article will provide information on five different types of orthopedic impairments and how they can be treated.

1. Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is a chronic condition affecting an individual’s bones and joints. It is triggered by specific bacteria and slowly destroys the bones by the disintegration of the matter. Due to the presence of bacteria and infection, pus is produced by the immune system which can result in a discharge with bad odor. This condition is most often introduced into the body through untreated abrasions and if it is not treated quickly, reconstructive orthopedic surgery may be required.

2. Spinal Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, also known as TB, is a highly infectious disease that can result in severe symptoms and death. When it is evident in the spine, it will cause a disintegration of the spinal column and the nerves. During this process, the impairment can be detrimental and will affect various areas of an individual’s life; therefore resulting in death if not treated correctly. Spinal tuberculosis can be identified in the thickening of the chest after a sharp bend is evident in the spinal region.

3. Cerebral Palsy

While cerebral palsy is technically a type of chronic motor condition affecting the body in entirety, it can lead to an inability to move, a lack of muscle tone, and a lack of muscle coordination. In the most severe cases, cerebral palsy will result in brain damage and the patient can experience a loss of mental capacity. This is particularly evident if the condition occurs when the baby is in the womb.

4. The Cleft Lip

A cleft lip is a common deformity and will occur as part of childhood development. The various parts of the face continue to form and, typically, the body will fuse the areas together. However, if the fusion between the medial and the maxillary nasal regions are not adequately fused, a cleft will form.

5. Angular Bone Deformity

An angular bone deformity is a simple bending of the bones above the knee and is a result of variations in normal growth patterns. The angular deformity will contribute to “knock knees” or “bow legs” and this can become worse as the child ages. This is considered as an orthopedic impairment because if this is not treated it can lead to unavoidable joint damage.

What Exactly Is A Learning Disability?

A learning disability is a problem that happens within the brain, a neurological disorder that prevents people from learning because their brain is hardwired in a different way. People that have lingering disabilities can actually be smarter than the average person, but have a problem with certain ways of learning. Let’s go over some of the most common learning disabilities, and why they are able to affect people.

How Does A Learning Disability Start?

A learning disability is simply the result of the brain not processing what the five senses are able to pick up. For example, if you have dyslexia, this is a condition where you are not able to read words properly, a condition that causes your brain to reverse certain letters. Another one is ADHD. This is a attention deficit disorder combined with hyperactivity which not only affects children, but also millions of adults. They become overloaded with what they are trying to process, and as a result of this, can become erratic in their behavior (which sometimes leads to personal injury) and also have trouble sitting long enough to focus on what is being taught. Others include dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and many other conditions that inhibit the person from being able to process simple information.

Is There A Cure For These Disorders?

According to many people, these processing deficits found within these individuals are simply unable to take sensory data and process at the normal way. Each one can affect individual people differently, with some people having a substantial disorder which will prevent them from reading, or may make it virtually impossible for them to have social interactions. In order to combat this, prescription drugs are often given to these individuals that have this overload of information which will include stimulants, antihypertensive drugs, and cognition enhancing supplements such as nootropics.

Now that you have a better idea of what a learning disability is, and how it can be treated, you may want to speak with your doctor about how to deal with these problems. You can find a full list of symptoms to look for online, and corresponding medical treatments that are available, that can help you with what could be a very debilitating problem. At the very least, you will understand if you have one, and if so, what options you have available. This may allow you to become more cognizant, and also more social, once you have figured out these problems.